In Python 3.5 String and Bytes are not same as in Python2.7, the manual conversion between them need to do using and
<==> decode method.
encode(…) method of builtins.str instance
S.encode(encoding=’utf-8′, errors=’strict’) -> bytes
decode(…) method of builtins.bytes instance
B.decode(encoding=’utf-8′, errors=’strict’) -> str
While doing Python 2.7 to Python 3.5 migration the most common issue is related to Text(String and Bytes) data type, One of such common issue is:
TypeError: a bytes-like object is required, not ‘str’
Error occurs due to the type mismatch of bytes and string.
For solving this error
encode the string data to bytes format by calling string_data.encode().
Python 3.x the
unicode type has been renamed as
str and the older
str type has been replaced by
See the below example (in Python 2.x)
#Bytes and String data are same. bytes==str #True help(bytes) #class str(basestring) help(str) #class str(basestring) #String and Unicode data are different. str==unicode # False help(str) #class str(basestring) help(unicode) #class unicode(basestring)
The same code in Python3.x
#Bytes and String data are different. bytes==str #False help(bytes) #class bytes(object) help(str) #class str(object) #Unicode data type not exists. unicode#NameError: name 'unicode' is not defined
That’s all for today. I hope this blog will help you. I’d be very grateful if you’d write your opinions, comments, and suggestions to keep the page updated and interesting.
You may also like our post on using Python ftplib library for File transfer.